Philosophy

2015

Halliday, Daniel. "Egalitarianism and Consumption Tax," in Schweiger, G., Gaisbauer, H. and Clemens, S. (eds.,). Philosophical Explorations of Justice and Taxation. Springer, 2014Halliday, Daniel. "Egalitarianism and Consumption Tax," in Schweiger, G., Gaisbauer, H. and Clemens, S. (eds.,). Philosophical Explorations of Justice and Taxation. Springer, 2014

This volume presents philosophical contributions examining questions of the grounding and justification of taxation and different types of taxes such as inheritance, wealth, consumption or income tax in relation to justice and the concept of a just society. The chapters cover the different levels at which the discussion on taxation and justice takes place: On the principal level, chapters investigate the justification and grounding of taxation as such and the role taxation plays and should play in the design of justice, be it for a just society or a just world order. On a more concrete level, chapters present discussions of these general reflections in more depth and examine different types of taxation, tax systems and their design and implementation. On an applied level, chapters discuss certain specific taxes, such as wealth and inheritance taxes, and examine whether or not a certain tax should be favored and for what reasons as well as why it is just to target certain kinds of assets or income. Finally, this volume contains chapters that discuss the central issue of international and global taxation and their relation to global justice. More information...

2014

Oppy, G. and Trakakis, N. (eds.,). History of Philosophy in Australia and New Zealand. Springer Science+Business Media, 2014Ellis, Brian; Sankey, Howard; Thomason, Neil; Hutchison, Keith; Wilkins, J.S., and Forge, John. "History and Philosophy of Science," in Oppy, G. and Trakakis, N. (eds.,). History of Philosophy in Australia and New Zealand. Springer Science+Business Media, 2014, pp. 707-772.

The History of Philosophy in Australia and New Zealand is a comprehensive account of the historical development of philosophy in Australia and New Zealand, from the establishment of the first Philosophy Chair in Australasia in 1886 at the University of Melbourne to the current burgeoning of Australasian philosophy. The work is divided into two broad sections, the first providing an account of significant developments and events during various periods in the history of Australasian philosophy, and the second focusing on ideas and theories that have been influential in various disciplines within Australasian philosophy. The work consists of chapters contributed by various philosophers, on specific fields of inquiry or historical periods within Australasian philosophy. More information...

Cordner, Christopher, "Moral Philosophy in the Midst of Things," in Taylor, C. and Graefe, M. K. (eds.,). A Sense for Humanity. Monash University Publishing, 2014.Cordner, Christopher, "Moral Philosophy in the Midst of Things," in Taylor, C. and Graefe, M. K. (eds.,). A Sense for Humanity. Monash University Publishing, 2014.

Raimond Gaita was awarded the Doctor Honoris Causa from the University of Antwerp 'for his exceptional contribution to contemporary moral philosophy and for his singular contribution to the role of the intellectual in today's academic world', so recognising the influence of Gaita's ethical thought beyond academic philosophy. The essays in this collection examine the influence of Gaita's ethical thought in this broad sense, and particularly within Australian society and culture, where it has been most significant. Through his various works, including in particular his acclaimed biography, Romulus: My Father, Gaita's ethical thought has had a considerable impact on the intellectual and cultural life of Australia. This collection is unique for its survey of this influence, with new essays from significant writers and academics. More information...

Schroeter, François and Schroeter, Laura. "Why Go Hybrid? A Cognitivist Alternative to Hybrid Theories of Normative Judgment," in Ridge, Michael and Fletcher, Guy (eds.,). Having It Both Ways: Hybrid Theories and Modern Metaethics. Oxford University Press, 2014Schroeter, François and Schroeter, Laura. "Why Go Hybrid? A Cognitivist Alternative to Hybrid Theories of Normative Judgment," in Ridge, Michael and Fletcher, Guy (eds.,). Having It Both Ways: Hybrid Theories and Modern Metaethics. Oxford University Press, 2014.

A recent trend in metaethics has been to reject the apparent choice between pure cognitivism, where moral (and other normative) judgments are understood as representational or belief-like states, and pure non-cognitivism, where they are understood as non-representational or desire-like states. Rather, philosophers have adopted views which seek in some way to combine the strengths of each side while avoiding the standard problems for each. Some such views claim that moral judgments are complexes of belief-like and desire-like components. Other views claim that normative language serves both to ascribe properties and to express desire-like attitudes. This collection of twelve new essays examines the prospects for such 'hybrid views' of normative thought and language. The papers, which focus mainly on moral thought and talk, provide a guide to this debate while also pushing it forward along numerous fronts. More information...

 Sidgwick and Contemporary Ethics. Oxford University Press, 2014Lazari-Radek, K. D. and Singer, Peter. The Point of View of the Universe: Sidgwick and Contemporary Ethics. Oxford University Press, 2014.

In The Methods of Ethics, the great nineteenth-century utilitarian Henry Sidgwick held that it is a self-evident moral truth that the good of one individual is of no more importance, 'from the point of view of the universe' than the good of any other. This and other ethical judgments are, in his view, objective truths that provide a rational foundation for utilitarianism. They led him to hold that the right act is the one that will most increase the surplus of pleasure over pain. This book tests Sidgwick's arguments against a variety of views held by contemporary writers in ethics, and concludes that they are in the main defensible. The book is therefore a defence of objectivism in ethics, and of hedonistic utilitarianism. We also examine Sidgwick's views on many other key questions in ethics: how to justify an ethical theory, the significance of an evolutionary explanation of our moral judgments, the choice between preference-utilitarianism and hedonistic utilitarianism, the conflict between egoism and utilitarianism, how demanding utilitarianism is, whether we should give priority to those who are worse off, and the moral status of animals. More information...

2013

Goswick, Dana. "Change and Identity Over Time," in Bardon, Adrian and Dyke, Heather (eds.,). A Companion to the Philosophy of Time.Goswick, Dana. "Change and Identity Over Time," in Bardon, Adrian and Dyke, Heather (eds.,). A Companion to the Philosophy of Time. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, 2013, pp. 365-385.

A Companion to the Philosophy of Time presents the broadest treatment of this subject yet; 32 specially commissioned articles - written by an international line-up of experts – provide an unparalleled reference work for students and specialists alike in this exciting field. It is the most comprehensive reference work on the philosophy of time currently available; the first collection to tackle the historical development of the philosophy of time in addition to covering contemporary work; provides a tripartite approach in its organization, covering history of the philosophy of time, time as a feature of the physical world, and time as a feature of experience; and includes contributions from both distinguished, well-established scholars and rising stars in the field. More information...

Sankey, Howard. "Thinking About Religion: Examining Progress in Religious Cognition," in Dawes, Greg and Maclaurin, James (eds.,). A New Science of Religion. Routledge, 2013, pp. 111-132.

 Examining Progress in Religious Cognition," in Dawes, Greg and Maclaurin, James (eds.,). A New Science of Religion.Religious belief, once in the domain of the humanities, has found a new home in the sciences. Promising new developments in the study of religion by cognitive scientists and evolutionary theorists put forward empirical hypotheses regarding the origin, spread, and character of religious beliefs. Different theories deal with different aspects of human religiosity – some focus on religious beliefs, while others focus on religious actions, and still others on the origin of religious ideas. While these theories might share a similar focus, there is plenty of disagreement in the explanations they offer.

This volume examines the diversity of new scientific theories of religion, by outlining the logical and causal relationships between these enterprises. Are they truly in competition, as their proponents sometimes suggest, or are they complementary and mutually illuminating accounts of religious belief and practice? Cognitive science has gained much from an interdisciplinary focus on mental function, and this volume explores the benefits that can be gained from a similar approach to the scientific study of religion. More information...

Priest, Graham. "Between the Horns of Idealism and Realism," in Emmanuel, Steven M. (ed.,). A Companion to Buddhist Philosophy.Priest, Graham. "Between the Horns of Idealism and Realism," in Emmanuel, Steven M. (ed.,). A Companion to Buddhist Philosophy. John Wiley & Sons, 2013, pp. 214-222

A Companion to Buddhist Philosophy is the most comprehensive single volume on the subject available; it offers the very latest scholarship to create a wide-ranging survey of the most important ideas, problems, and debates in the history of Buddhist philosophy. The book ncompasses the broadest treatment of Buddhist philosophy available, covering social and political thought, meditation, ecology and contemporary issues and applications and each section contains overviews and cutting-edge scholarship that expands readers understanding of the breadth and diversity of Buddhist thought. More information...

 Analytic and Applied Perspectives.Jones, Karen. "Trusting Interpretations," in Pekka, Mäkelä and Townley, Cynthia (eds.,). Trust: Analytic and Applied Perspectives. Rodopi, 2013, pp. 15-29

"Whatever matters to human beings, trust is the atmosphere in which it thrives" writes Sissela Bok. Although trust is ubiquitous, understanding trust is a non-trivial challenge. Trust: Analytic and Applied Perspectives addresses critical and analytical issues of trust. It examines trust from a conceptual perspective as well as considers it in practical contexts ranging from the public sphere broadly understood to particular social institutions, such as universities and medical care. Trust: Analytic and Applied Perspectives explores what kind of good trust is, what kind of goods it can protect and how it can bring about goods, and develops subtle distinctions between trust and other virtues, and between trust and other forms of dependence. More information...

http://www.springer.com/philosophy/logic+and+philosophy+of+language/book/978-94-007-4437-0Restall, Greg. "Assertion, Denial and Non-Classical Theories," in Tanaka, K., Berto, F., Mares, E., Paoli, F. (eds.,). Paraconsistency: Logic and Applications. Springer, 2013, pp. 81-99

The book includes almost every major author currently working in the field. The papers are on the cutting edge of the literature some of which discuss current debates and others present important new ideas. The editors have avoided papers about technical details of paraconsistent logic, but instead concentrated upon works that discuss more "big picture" ideas. Different treatments of paradoxes takes centre stage in many of the papers, but also there are several papers on how to interpret paraconistent logic and some on how it can be applied to philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of language, and metaphysics. More information...

 From Biodiversity to Human Genetics.Schroeder, Doris and Cook Lucas, Julie (eds.,). Benefit Sharing: From Biodiversity to Human Genetics. Springer Science+Business Media, 2013

Biomedical research is increasingly carried out in low- and middle-income countries. International consensus has largely been achieved around the importance of valid consent and protecting research participants from harm. But what are the responsibilities of researchers and funders to share the benefits of their research with research participants and their communities? After setting out the legal, ethical and conceptual frameworks for benefit sharing, this collection analyses seven historical cases to identify the ethical and policy challenges that arise in relation to benefit sharing. A series of recommendations address possible ways forward to achieve justice for research participants in low- and middle-income countries. More information...

2012

 Routledge, 2012Bird, Alexander; Ellis, Brian and Sankey, Howard (eds.,). Properties, Powers and Structures: Issues in the Metaphysics of Realism. New York, United States: Routledge, 2012

While the phrase "metaphysics of science" has been used from time to time, it has only recently begun to denote a specific research area where metaphysics meets philosophy of science - and the sciences themselves. The essays in this volume demonstrate that metaphysics of science is an innovative field of research in its own right. More information...

Restall, Greg and Russell, G. (eds.,). New Waves in Philosophical Logic.Restall, Greg and Russell, G. (eds.,). New Waves in Philosophical Logic. Basingstoke, United Kingdom: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.

Philosophical logic has been, and continuous to be, a driving force behind much progress and development in philosophy more broadly. This collection by up-and-coming philosophical logicians deals with a broad range of topic, including, for example, proof-theory, probability, context-sensitivity, dialetheism and dynamics semantics. It contains outstanding volume of papers from some of the most exciting young scholars of philosophical logic and offers a broad perspective on one of the most important disciplines within philosophy. More information...

 From Nature to Theory.Inkpin, Andrew. "The Complexities of "Abstracting" from Nature," in Crowther, P. and Wunsche, I. (eds.,). Meanings of Abstract Art: From Nature to Theory. Routledge, 2012, p. 255-269

Traditional art is based on conventions of resemblance between the work and that which it is a representation "of". Abstract art, in contrast, either adopts alternative modes of visual representation or reconfigures mimetic convention. This book explores the relation of abstract art to nature (taking nature in the broadest sense—the world of recognisable objects, creatures, organisms, processes, and states of affairs).

Abstract art takes many different forms, but there are shared key structural features centered on two basic relations to nature. The first abstracts from nature, to give selected aspects of it a new and extremely unfamiliar appearance. The second affirms a natural creativity that issues in new, autonomous forms that are not constrained by mimetic conventions. (Such creativity is often attributed to the power of the unconscious.) More information...