All written work should be typed and double-spaced. Leave a full 2cm margin all around, with 3cm minimum on the left hand. Number all pages. You are expected to retain a copy of all work submitted for assessment. Written work needs to be submitted through your subject's "Turnitin" link on the LMS. Essays can be uploaded in .doc, .docx, or pdf format. Work to be assessed will not be accepted via fax or email.

In addition to submission via Turnitin some subject coordinators may request a hard copy. If this is the case you will need to fill in and sign a cover sheet available on the Undergraduate web page.

General style conventions


Spelling should follow the Australian Concise Oxford Dictionary.

Use of capitals

Other than for proper names, use capitals only when lower case would cause ambiguity.


  • Use full names of states in the text, though abbreviations may be used in footnotes
  • Use a full-stop after an abbreviation (Vic.; ed.), but not after a contraction (Qld, eds)
  • For abbreviations that consist of capitals, do not use full stops: NSW, ADFA; also BA, PhD, MA
  • Symbols for currency and units of measurement have no full stop (5 km, 25 lb, 6s)
  • Plurals of abbreviations do not need an apostrophe: MPs, Revs


  • Use single quotation marks; for quotations within a quotation, use double quotation marks
  • Indent quotations of more than forty words and double space
  • Use the spelling and punctuation of the original. Use [sic] (without a full-stop) only to indicate that the spelling or turn of phrase derives from the original. Put any interpolations in square brackets
  • If omitting material from a quotation, use three ellipsis points (...). Do not use ellipsis points at the beginning of a quotation


  • Numbers and ordinals up to one hundred are spelled out: twenty-five; fifty-sixth anniversary
  • Numbers over one hundred are given in figures (276), except for round numbers (five thousand). Use figures with a succession of numbers: 16 representatives, 5 union officials, 102 members
  • For percentages, write 91 per cent, not 91%


  • These are shown as 15 January 1970
  • Months should be spelled out in full
  • No apostrophe is used in 1870s, 1900s
  • Show a span of years as 1845-50, not 1845-1850

Italics or underlining

  • Underline only if italics are unavailable or if underlining features in the original document quoted
  • Use italics for seldom-used foreign words: see Australian Concise Oxford Dictionary

Citation style: footnotes and endnotes

The recommended referencing style of the The School of Historical and Philosophical Studies is set out in The Chicago Manual of Style, the latest edition of which is the 16th edition. Copies are available in the Baillieu Library, and there is online access with student email username and password. There is also a quick step-by-step guide on the Chicago Manual of Style Online web page. Please use the tabs towards the top of the page.

Many bibliographic programs, such as EndNote and ProCite, will build references for you and insert them into a paper in the format you choose. EndNote, the program recommended by The University of Melbourne, includes Chicago among it.