Union House tour (accessible)

Union House

A 360-degree panorama of a multistorey sandstone brick building that features a number of different architectural styles. The entrance to the building is in a gothic revival style with a large gothic window and white wooden doors. There is a car lodging bay to the right of the entrance and a mid-century addition to the building on the left. There is a small open grassed area opposite the building.

Welcome

A grainy black and white image of a long building with a mixture of architectural features. There is a large, three-storey, neo-Gothic tower at the centre of the building. A small group of people are assembled in front of the tower. A 1950s style car can be seen driving along the road in front of the building.

Union House, 1954. This photograph shows the central neo-Gothic entrance tower and, on the right, the steps to the stage door of the Union Theatre. The old Wilson Hall can be seen in the background. From the Theatre and Dance Platform.

Welcome to the Union House Theatre Complex, home of Union House Theatre and for many years a centre of innovation in the performing arts in Australia. This tour highlights the rich history of creative interaction between students and professional theatre makers at the University, as well as some interesting features of the building itself.

You can explore the building by hovering over the navigational drawer at the top left of the page. Click on your chosen location to see a 360-degree view of the space. You can also navigate between locations by clicking the arrows at the bottom left of the screen. By clicking the icons embedded throughout the tour you will be given information about the history of Union House and its significance as a performing arts venue.

The images included in this tour are drawn from a number of sources, including the Rowden White Library archives, which you can explore in more depth at the Theatre and Dance Platform, University of Melbourne.

History of Union House

A newspaper article with the headline “£60,000 STUDENT BUILDING PLANS”.

Article from the front page of The Herald, 29 November 1935, describing plans for the extension of old National Museum building. From the Theatre and Dance Platform.

The first building on the site now occupied by Union House was the National Museum of Victoria, built in 1863. This “barn-like” structure later became the home of the Student Representative Council and in 1938 it was improved and extended with the addition of a large west wing. The east wing was remodelled to contain a 500 seat theatre.

In the 1950s, with the student population skyrocketing, it was felt that major renovations were needed. Eventually, in 1968, the site was completely redeveloped to its current modernist design. All that now remains of the original Gothic Revival architecture of the National Museum are some exterior buttresses and the ogival, or pointed window, at the northern end of the east elevation by the stage door entrance to the theatre.

In 2019, work began on a new student precinct at the corner of Grattan and Swanston Streets. The future of Union House remains uncertain, although plans for its demolition have been submitted.

Theatre at the University

A colourful, hand-drawn, pop-art style poster with the heading “STUDENT THEATRE”. The poster depicts a male and female student standing over a small doll house. Inside the dollhouse is a recreation of various scenes connected to the theatre. There are individuals sowing costumes, actors rehearsing and having meetings, and people stretching.  There is a subheading at the bottom of the poster staying, “Melbourne University Union Theatre Department PH344 6975”.

Poster promoting the Melbourne University Union Theatre Department from 1986. From the Theatre and Dance Platform.

The University of Melbourne can boast a significance in the history of the performing arts in Australia unrivalled by any other university.

In the 1950s, it launched the Melbourne Theatre Company, the country's first - and now largest - professional theatre company. It was an important venue for the performance of the wave of new Australian plays written in the 1960s and 1970s. Through the 1980s and 1990s it was a hotbed of experimental performance-making. And the list of those who got their start in student theatre at the University is a veritable who’s who of Australian stage and screen.

Today the performing arts remain a vital part of campus life. Student theatre groups continue to flourish, and college productions remain overwhelming popular. Union House Theatre, the theatre department of the University of Melbourne Student Union, supports an extensive program of masterclasses and special events, and continues to offer students the experience of working in a professional theatre environment.

Union House Roof

A 360-degree panoramic photograph of the interior of a large attic. Lage timber trusses outline the shape of the gabled roof. Timber and brick are juxtaposed with the metallic insulation of air-conditioning ducts.

The Bones of This Old House

A black and white sketch of the interior of a grand, two-storey hall, with a gabled ceiling, and a balcony on the second floor. On the ground floor are several museum exhibits including the skeletons of three dinosaurs. There are people dressed in Victorian era clothing examining the different exhibits.

Sketch of the old National Museum as it would have looked in 1863, created for Geoffrey Blainey's The Centenary History of the University of Melbourne (1957). From the Theatre and Dance Platform.

Hidden above the Union Theatre, above the grid deck and fly gallery, the old timber trusses of Frederick McCoy’s natural history museum can still be found. There was an attempt to preserve the shell of this museum as part of the 1968 redevelopment, but it was ultimately dismantled to make possible a larger basement area. All that remains of the National Museum of Victoria are these trusses and a section of the exterior shell at the northern end of the building's east elevation.

Union Theatre

A 360-degree panoramic photograph of a large indoor theatre.  The viewer looks out from the stage towards empty black and red seats. The rear of the stage is a storage area. Rigging for the curtains and the stage lights can also be seen.

The Union Theatre

A black and white architectural drawing of the cross section of a large hall. There are intersecting lines across the page and a key at the bottom.

Cross-section of proposed Union Theatre redevelopment by Bates Smart (architectural firm), October 1996. From the Theatre and Dance Platform.

Union Theatre was the first properly equipped theatre built on University grounds, created as part of the 1938 extensions. It was fitted with machinery and furniture donated from the old Garrick Theatre near the Princes Bridge, and its first manager was the energetic Des Connor, also formerly of the Garrick.

During the forties, the Union was a key venue in the ‘little theatre’ movement in Melbourne, hosting important modern drama premieres by companies like the Dolia Ribosh Company and Irene Mitchell's Little Theatre Guild. It also hosted tours by international artists such as American modern dance pioneer Ted Shawn and Irina Barinova and the Ballets Russes. And, of course, it supported productions by University colleges, the Student Representative Council and the growing number of dramatic clubs.

In 1953, the Union Repertory Theatre Company took up residence. The auditorium floor was carpeted and tiered to allow for improved sight lines, the windows were removed and new seats were installed. But more work was still needed and less than a decade later, in 1968, the theatre was again remodelled as part of the Union House renovations.

Colleges and Clubs

A colour photograph of a ticket stub. From left to right, the ticket stub reads “Union Theatre University. Tomorrow at 8:15 P.M. The Marlowe Society Presents the Australian Premiere of ‘Epitaph for George Dillion’ by John Osborne & Anthony Creighton. Produced by Bunney Brooke. Thickets Brash’s and Theatre – FJ5498.” In the bottom left corner of the photograph is the words “August 1960” written in blue pen.

A ticket for a Marlowe Dramatic Society production of Epitaph for George Dillon, starring Max Gillies. Designs for the play were created by Bunny Brook. From the Theatre and Dance Platform.

The first theatrical productions at the University of Melbourne were staged by its colleges, often on improvised stages in common rooms, chapels and dining halls.

One of the most active colleges from the period before the First World War was Queens College, which staged commencement week plays from the early 1890s. Its extensive archives include cast photographs from as early as 1897.

Today, almost all the residential colleges have or have had drama groups, with the most active being Trinity, Ormond and Queens. And although they now tend to prefer crowd-pleasing musicals and variety theatre, there have been many more ambitious performances.

The other major groups to use the Union Theatre were student dramatic societies. Large clubs like the Tin Alley Players, the Marlowe Society and the Melbourne University Dramatic Club flourished in the period immediately following the Second World War as student numbers swelled.

Today dramatic clubs are less prominent – and more short-lived – but they remain a vital part of the campus performing arts culture.

Union Theatre Repertory Company

A black and white photograph depicting a priest slumped over a pulpit. The lighting in the room creates a sinister mood. Two women dressed in 1950s style jackets stand in front the priest having a conversation. There is a stern look on the faces of both women. The number 69 has been scratched onto the left side of the photograph.

Scene from the 1963 UTRC production of Patrick White's A Cheery Soul. From the Theatre and Dance Platform.

In 1953, the Union Theatre Repertory Company was created and took up residence in the Union Theatre. English director and manager John Sumner had taken over management of the theatre after Des Connor died suddenly in 1951 and was appointed artistic director.

The UTRC, which was Australia’s first professional repertory company, crammed as many as 15 new productions into six-month seasons that dominated the Union Theatre for the next decade and a half. Despite financial ups and downs, it proved a great success.

Playwrights who had their work staged at the Union Theatre during this period include Ray Lawler, Patrick White, Vance Palmer, Malcolm Robertson, Peter Batey and Reg Livermore. Meanwhile, actors who worked with the company include Zoe Caldwell, Patricia Kennedy, June Jago, Alan Hopgood, Patricia Connelly, Neil Fitzpatrick, Robin Ramsay, George Ogilvie, Frank Thring, Reg Livermore, Elspeth Ballantyne and, Patsy King.

In 1968, shortly after leaving the Union Theatre for the Russell Street Theatre, the UTRC changed its name to the Melbourne Theatre Company, which now has the largest subscriber base of any theatre in the country.

Revues at the Union

A hand-drawn, colourful, yellow, black and red poster depicting a male professor dressed in a gown and hat, roller-skating while reading a book. The heading of the poster reads “MUSTER OF ARTS”. There are subheadings that read “Union Theatre May 13-23”, “A university Revue”, and “BOOKINGS Brash’s or Theatre - FJ 5498”.

Poster advertising the Muster of Arts 1959 student revue, held at Union Theatre. The revue featured among others a twenty-year-old Germaine Greer.

Revues have a long history at the University of Melbourne and many of the country's best-loved entertainers cut their comedic teeth in campus sketches and burlesques. A popular early revue was the Dental Follies, a burlesque of the Tivoli Follies organised by the Dental Students Society, which began during the University's wartime Red Cross Carnival and was performed in Melba Hall. (Their motto was - "We pull laughs better than we pull teeth".) Other early revues were performed by the Medical Medleys, the Legal Lyrics and the Science Revue Company. In the 1930s, the SRC sponsored a hugely popular annual revue which was held in one of the large downtown commercial venues. After World War Two, however, the Union and Architecture Theatres became the twin centres of undergraduate sketch and variety theatre that stimulated the growth of the Melbourne Comedy scene. Popular annual events included the Law Revue, the Engineering Revue, the Architecture Revue and, of course, the SRC revue.

Guild Theatre

A 360-degree panoramic photograph of a small indoor theatre. The viewer looks out from the stage towards empty rows of brown benches. The walls, ceiling and floor are all painted black. Rigging for lighting can be seen above the viewer.

The Guild Theatre

A colour photograph depicting the silhouettes of several individuals sitting on chairs. Two purple lights illuminate the group from above and yellow lights illuminate them from behind. In right foreground, the corner of a mixing desk can be seen.

Opening night of Macbeth + macdeath : a coda (2016) in the Guild Theatre. Photo by Rachel Shrives. Courtesy of the Union House Theatre.

The Guild Theatre, which sits above the Union Theatre and is accessible via the first floor of Union House, was created as part of the 1968 renovations. It’s a small black box-style theatre seating 100 people and was established in response to changing theatre practices in the late sixties.

Much like the 90-seat Jerwood Theatre Upstairs on top of the Royal Court in London, which was opened in 1969, the Guild promoted more radical and experimental work and the kind of theatre that benefited from a more intimate studio staging. It also functioned as a rehearsal space and an important venue promoting student theatre and dance.

Dance at the University

A beige poster with blue font and simple design features the text: Changing Faces Facing Changes, Guild Dance Theatre, Dance Drama MIMF. The Text is accompanied by a rectangular design intersected by 5 wavy lines. Information about the show reads “Venue: Guild Dance Theatre. Union Building Melbourne University. Cost: adults 6.00, students, $4.00. Bookings 344 6975 (B.H), 451 6725 (A.H).  Wednesday 24 - Saturday 27 July 8:15 pm. Saturday  27 July 2:00p children’s matinee.

Poster Advertising the Guild Dance production of Changing Faces, Facing Changes in 1985. From the Theatre and Dance Platform.

In 1946, the emergence of an Australian ballet culture was promoted by the Ballet Guild, and they presented annual seasons in the Union Theatre; which was also home to modern dance concerts curated by émigré artists during the 1950s.

The creation of the Guild Theatre (named after the Union Theatre's first head mechanist Jimmy Guild) in 1968 coincided with a renewed focus on dance in Australia. While Australian modern dance pioneer Margaret Lasica and her Modern Dance Ensemble continued to perform in the Union Theatre through the 1970s, others such as Bob Thorneycroft and Joe Bolza and Australian Dance Theatre used the smaller but more flexible Guild Theatre space. By the 1980s, student groups such as Guild Dance were regular occupants; indeed, dance became so popular that, in the 1990s, the Union introduced the position of Director of Dance.

Experimental Performance

A white poster with black and green font. At the centre of the poster is the impression of an asterisk-shaped figure. The text reads “Treason of Images theatre presents: troilus and cressida by William Shakespeare. Guild Theatre, Melbourne University. Thursday, June 5 - Saturday, June 14. 7:30pm. Adults: $7.50, Students $4.00. Bookings 344 6975. Assisted by the Theatre 1986.

Poster advertising director Barrie Kosky’s 1986 production of Troilus and Cressida. From the Theatre and Dance Platform.

From the beginning, the Guild Theatre was a hub for politically challenging and aesthetically innovative productions. It hosted the work of local companies like the Australian Performing Group and Nindethana, as well as touring shows like Rex Cramphorn’s stripped-back The Tempest in 1972, the Popular Theatre Troupe’s agit-prop production of White Man's Mission and English company Prospect Theatre's Endgame. In the 1980s, the Guild became the crucible for a generation of bold young directors, many of them students at the University, including Barrie Kosky, Bruce Gladwin, Ewa Czajor and Michael Kantor.

Getting Their Start

A colour poster depicting the entrance to a theme park. The entrance is made up of a large sun with a face where patrons can walk through the mouth. The text on the poster reads “Melbourne University Union Theatre Department Presents: Ghost Trains, by Ray Gill and Joanna Murrary Smith Directed by Ewa Czajor. Guild Theatre, October 9-13, 8:00pm, matinee 11th, tickets $6 & $3, bookings 3476975.”

Poster advertising Ghost Trains (1984) by Joanna Murray-Smith and Ray Gill. From the Theatre and Dance Platform.

The Guild Theatre remains a place where young performance makers can make a start on a long career. In 1984, Joanna Murray-Smith premiered her first full-length play Ghost Trains at the Guild Theatre, co-written with her husband Ray Gill.

Today, Murray-Smith is one of Australia’s best-known playwrights, with a substantial international reputation. Other contemporary playwrights who launched their careers at the Guild include Angus Cerini, Lally Katz, Ben Ellis, Declan Greene and Jean Tong among many others.

Des Connor Room

A 360-degree panoramic photograph of a sparsely furnished room.  There are two chairs and a table poisoned against a brick wall separated by long narrow windows.  There is a sign on the wall stating, “please keep this rehearsal studio clean”.  There is a piano at one end of the room and a mirror at the opposite end.

Des Connor Room

A modern colour photograph shows the narrow wrought iron balcony outside of the Des Connor Room. The balcony depicts a highly stylised human figure on one knee in a dramatic pose.

The wrought iron balcony outside the Des Connor Room.

The Des Connor Room is a studio rehearsal room above the Union Theatre in Union House. The entrance is outside Union House underneath the remaining arch window from the original National Museum of Victoria building. Available for late night and week-end bookings and at no charge for workshops, rehearsals, readings and auditions, it has nurtured theatrical experimentation by University of Melbourne students. It is also used as a fringe theatre venue.

Workshops and Rehearsals

Combat training with professional fight director Lyndall Grant for Macbeth + macdeath : a coda (2016). Video courtesy of Union House Theatre.

The Des Connor Room has also been an important venue for performing arts workshops, offering a space where students can learn new skills with professionals. Malcolm Robertson of the MTC was the first, in 1968, to lead a workshop in the Des. Since then the room has hosted Tai Chi classes with William Zappa, voice training wit Nancy Black, a course in Laban Theatre Analysis with David Kendall and choreography with Nanette Hassall, to name just a few.

Innovations and Explorations

A black and yellow poster for ‘Hamlet’. Five yellow faces appear on a black background, each with disturbing expressions. The bottom portion states: Directed by Michael Cathart. Music by Ian Holtham, Design by Wiggy Brennan. August 29-31, September 1, 2, 5-9, 730pm. Bookings 344 6975. Des Connor Room, Union House, Melbourne Uni. Photo - Geneveve Blanchett.

Poster advertising the Michael Cathcart’s 1989 production of Hamlet. From the Theatre and Dance Platform.

Although the Des Connor Room is usually reserved for rehearsals and workshops, it is occasionally used as a venue for comedy shows, fringe events and other unconventional performances. In 1989, for example, Theatre Ensemble staged an innovative production of Hamlet directed by ABC radio personality Michael Cathcart. With a cast that included Cate Blanchett, the production featured a set made of movable wooden boxes, planks and cylinders, with masks made by Princes' Hill High School students.

Theatre Studies in the Des

Black printed text stating “Reading guides may be obtained from the … History, Education Philosophy department offices. Written Work and Assessment. Students will participate in the formulation of appropriate assessment in the subject. A maximum examination and assessment system would be two 3-hour papers and two essays. 1000-464 Interdepartmental Programme in Drama. Director: Mr J, McCaughey, Classical Studies. Participants: Dr J. Armstrong, Russian, Mr D. Kendall Theatre Department, M.U. Union, Dr H. Maclean, Germanic Studies, Mr A.D Pryor, Classical Studies.

Extract from the 1975 Faculty of Arts Handbook. From Digitised Collections.

As well as a place for practical experimentation, the Des Connor Room was also the site of the first formal theatre studies course held by the University of Melbourne. In 1975, James McCaughey, then a senior lecturer in classics, directed the first Interdepartmental Drama Course, first in Old Engineering labs and then in the Des Connor Room. Students who would later go on to have careers in the performing arts include Hannie Rayson, Suzanne Chaundy, Peter King and Jill Buckler.