Academic publications


  • Fan, J., Frost, K., & Liu, B. (2020). Teachers’ involvement in high-stakes language assessment reforms: The case of Test for English Majors (TEM) in China. Studies in Educational Evaluation. Doi: 10.1016/j.stueduc.2020.100898.
  • Fan, J., & Yan, X. (2020). Assessing speaking proficiency: A narrative review of speaking assessment research within the argument-based validation framework. Frontiers in Psychology. Doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00330.
  • Haug, T., Batty, A., Ventz, M., Notter, C., Girard-Groeber, S., Knoch, U., Audeoud, M. (2020). Validity evidence for a sentence repetition test of Swiss German Sign Language. Language Testing 37 (3): 412-434.
  • Liu, B., & Fan, J. (2020). Exploring teachers’ views on high-stakes language assessment reforms: The case of Test for English Majors Grade 8. Foreign Language World, 197(2): 20-26.
  • Macqueen, S. & Knoch, U. (2020). Adaptive imitation: Formulaicity and the words of others in L2 English academic writing. In Fogal, G & Verspoor M. (Eds). Complex dynamic systems theory and L2 writing development. London: John Benjamins Publishing.
  • O’Hagan, S. & Frost, K. (2020). Examining test-taker processes and strategies and stakeholder perceptions of relevance of the Aptis for Teachers Speaking test in the Australian context. AR-G/2020/1. ARAGs Research Reports Online ISSN: 2057-5203, Series Editors: R. Spivy & C. Westbrook. London: The British Council.
  • Rastgou, A., Storch, N., Knoch, U. (2020). The effect of sustained teacher feedback on CAF, content and organization in EFL writing. Iranian Journal of Language Teaching Research 8(2), 41-61
  • Yan, X. & Fan, J. (2020, online first). “Am I qualified to be a language tester?”: Understanding the development of language assessment literacy across different stakeholder groups. Language Testing. Doi: 10.1177/0265532220929924.


  • Elder, C., Knoch, U. and Harradine, O. (2019). "Language requirements for Australian citizenship: Insights from a senate enquiry," in C. Roever and J. Wigglesworth (eds.,). Social perspectives on language testing: Papers in honour of Tim McNamara. Berlin: Peter Lang
  • Fan, J. (2019). Assessing Chinese learners of English: Language constructs, consequences, and conundrums. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy, and Practice. DOI:
  • Fan, J. (2019). "Book review: Design and validation of a computerized adaptive EFL test," in Language Testing, 36(1), pp. 151-153
  • Fan, J. and Bond, T. (2019). "Applying Rasch measurement in language assessment: Unidimensionality and local independence," in Aryadoust, V. and Rachel, M. (eds.,). Statistical analysis in language assessment. Routledge, pp. 83-102
  • Fan, J., Knoch, U., & Bond, T. (2019). Application of Rasch measurement theory in language assessment: Using measurement to enhance language assessment research and practice. Papers in Language Testing and Assessment 8(2): iii-ix.
  • Fan, J. & Ji, P. (2019). Development and validation of the Fudan English Test. Shanghai: Fudan University Press.
  • Fan, J. & Jin, Y. (2019). Standards for language assessment: Demystifying university-level English placement testing in China. Asia-Pacific Journal of Education. Doi:
  • Fan, J. and Jin, Y. (2019). "Working towards professional standards: How do students and teachers view English language testing practice in China?" in C. Roever and G. Wigglesworth (eds.,). Social perspectives on language testing: Papers in honour of Tim McNamara. Berlin: Peter Lang, pp. 173-186
  • Frost, K., Clothier, J., Huisman, A. and Wigglesworth, G (2019). "Responding to a TOEFL iBT integrated speaking task: Mapping task demands and test takers’ use of stimulus content," in Language Testing
  • Gao, X. & Fan, J. (2019). ‘Computational and Corpus Approaches to Chinese Language Learning’, Xiaofei Lu, Berlin Chen (Eds.). Springer, Singapore (2019). Applied Linguistics. Doi:10.1093/applin/amz054.
  • Knoch, U. and Macqueen, S. (2019). Assessing English for Professional Purposes: Language and the workplace. London: Routledge
  • McNamara, T., Knoch, U. and Fan, J. (2019). Fairness, Justice and Language Assessment. Oxford: Oxford University Press
  • Macqueen, S., Knoch, U., Wigglesworth, G., McNamara, T., Nordlinger, R. and Singer, R. (2019). "An investigation of the impact of national standardized literacy and numeracy testing on children in remote Indigenous communities of Australia," in Language Testing


  • Fan, J. (2018). The development and validation of standards in language testing. Shanghai: Fudan University Press
  • Knoch, U. and Chapelle, C. (2018). "Validating rating processes within an argument-based approach to validation," in Language Testing; 35 (4), pp. 477-499
  • Knoch, U., Fairbairn, J., Myford, C. and Huisman, A. (2018). "Evaluating the effectiveness of training new writing and speaking raters online," in Papers in Language Testing and Assessment 7(1), pp. 61-86
  • McNamara, T., Elder, C., Flynn, E., Knoch, U., Manias, E., Woodward-Kron, R. and Yahalom, S. (2018). "Collaboration in the design of specific purpose language tests in the health setting," in Applied Linguistics and Professional Practice 13 (3), p. 189-210
  • Mendoza Ramos, A. and Knoch, U. (2018). "Examining the validity of an analytic rating scale for a Spanish test for academic purposes using the argument-based approach to validation," in Assessing Writing 35, pp. 41-55


  • Elder, C. (2017). "English assessment in higher education," in Shohamy, E., Or I.G. and May, S. (eds.,). Encyclopedia of Language and Education. Language Testing and Assessment. Springer, pp. 271-285
  • Elder, C., McNamara, T., Kim, H., Pill., J. and Sato, T. (2017). "Interrogating the construct of communicative competence in language assessment contexts: What the non-language specialist can tell us," in Language and Communication 57, pp. 14-21
  • Knoch, U. (2017). "Research in the news - Research in second language assessment," in Language Teaching 50 (1)
  • Knoch, U., McNamara, T. and Elder, C. (2017). Submission to the Australian Government Department of Immigration and Border Protection on the discussion paper 'Strengthening the test for the Australian citizenship'. Melbourne: Language Testing Research Centre
  • Knoch, U., McNamara, T. and Elder, C. (2017). Submission to the senate enquiry on the proposed revisions to the citizenship law. Melbourne: Language Testing Research Centre.
  • Knoch, U. and Macqueen, S. (2017). "Assessment in the L2 classroom," in Loewen, S. and Sato, M. (eds.,). The Routledge Handbook of Instructed Second Language Acquisition. Routledge
  • Wigglesworth, G. and Frost, K. (2016). "Task and performance based assessment," in Shohamy, E., Or I.G. and May, S. (eds.,). Encyclopedia of Language and Education. Language Testing and Assessment. Springer


  • Elder, C. (2016). "Introduction to special issue," in Papers in Language Testing and Assessment 5, 1, pp. iii-viii
  • Elder, C. (2016). "Exploring the limits of authenticity in language testing: the case of a specific purpose language test for health professionals," in Language Testing 33, 2, pp. 147-152
  • Elder, C. (ed.,) (2016). The limits of authenticity in language testing. Special issue of Language Testing, Vol 33, 2, pp. 147-301
  • Elder, C. (ed.,) (2016). Evaluating language assessment programs and systems in use. Special issue of Papers in Language Testing and Assessment Vol 5, 1, pp. i- 126
  • Elder, C. (ed.,) (2016). Evaluating language assessment programs/projects in use. Special Issue of Papers in Language Testing and Assessment 5, 1
  • Elder, C. and McNamara, T. (2016). "The hunt for 'indigenous criteria' in assessing communication in the physiotherapy workplace," in Language Testing 33, 2, pp. 153-174
  • Fan, J. (2016). "How to improve stakeholders' language assessment literacy - The case of the Language Testing Centre at Fudan University," in The Way of Language: Learning, Assessment, and Culture 7, pp. 48-51
  • Fan, J. (2016). "The construct and predictive validity of a self-assessment scale," in Papers in Language Testing and Assessment 5 (2), pp. 69-100
  • Fan, J. and Bond, T. (2016). "Using MFRM and SEM in the validation of analytic rating scales of an English speaking assessment," in Zhang, Q. (ed.,). Pacific Rim Objective Measurement Symposium (PROMS) 2015 Conference Proceedings. Springer Science+Business Media Singapore, pp. 29-50
  • Fan, J., Knoch, U. and Bi, Z. (2016). "Factor structure and factorial invariance of language tests: A longitudinal multiple-sample CFA study," in Foreign Language Testing and Teaching 6 (3), pp. 16-27
  • Hughson, J., Woodward-Kron, R., Parker, A., Bresin, A., Hajek, J., Knoch, U., Story, D. and Phan, T. (2016). "A review of approaches to improve participation of culturally and linguistically diverse populations in clinical trials," in Trials 17, p. 263
  • Fan, J. and Yan, X. (2017). "From test performance to language use: Using self-assessment to validate a high-stakes English proficiency test," in The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher
  • Knoch, U. (2016). "Validation of Writing Assessment," in Chapelle (ed.,). Encyclopaedia of Applied Linguistics. Wiley
  • Knoch, U. (2016). "What can pronunciation researchers learn from research into second language writing?" in Isaacs, T. and Trofimovich, P. (eds.,). Interfaces in second language pronunciation assessment: interdisciplinary perspectives. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters
  • Knoch, U. and Elder, C. (2016). "Post-entry English language assessments at university: How diagnostic are they?" in Aryadoust, V. and Fox, J. (eds.,). Current Trends in Language Testing in the Pacific Rim and the Middle East: Policies, Analyses, and Diagnoses. Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcastle-on-Tyne, UK, pp. 210-230
  • Knoch, U., Elder, C. and O’Hagan, S. (2016). "Examining the validity of a post-entry screening tool embedded in a specific policy context," in Read, J. (ed.,). Post-admission language assessment of university students. Cham, Switzerland: Springer
  • Knoch, U., Fairbairn, J. and Huisman, A. (2016). "An evaluation of an online rater training program for the speaking and writing sub-test of the Aptis," in Papers in Language Testing and Assessment, Vol. 5, 1, pp. 90-106
  • Knoch, U. and Macqueen, S. (2016) "Language Assessment in the workplace," in Tsagari, D. and Banerjee, J. (eds.,). Handbook of Second Language Assessment. De Gruyter Mouton
  • Macqueen, S., O'Hagan, S. and Hughes, B. (2016). "Negotiating the boundary between achievement and proficiency: An evaluation of the exit standard of an academic English pathway program," in Papers in Language Testing and Assessment 5 (1), pp. 107-123
  • Macqueen, S., Pill, J., Elder, C. and Knoch, U. (2016) "Language test as boundary object: Perspectives from test users in the healthcare domain," in Language Testing 33 (2), pp. 271-288
  • Morton, J., Elder, C. and McNamara, T. (2016). "Pattern and particularity in a pedagogical genre: The case of an individual teacher," in Duché, V., Do, T. and Rizzi, A. (eds.,). Genre, text and language: Mélanges Anne Freadman. Librairie Garnier, Paris
  • Woodward-Kron, R. and Elder, C. (2016). "A comparative discourse study of simulated roleplays in two assessment contexts: Validating a specific purpose language test," in Language Testing, 33, 2, pp. 251-270
  • Woodward-Kron, R., Hughson, J., Parker, A., Bresin, A., Hajek, J., Knoch, U., Phan, T. and Story, D. (2016). "Culturally and linguistically diverse populations in medical research: perceptions and experiences of older Italians, their families, ethics administrators and researchers," in Journal of Public Health Research, 5, p. 667


  • Bitchener, J. and Knoch, U. (2015). "Replication of written corrective feedback studies: Bitchener and Knoch (2010) and van Beuningen, de Jong and Kuiken (2012)," in Language Teaching 48, 3, pp. 405-414
  • Elder, C. (2015). "Obituary," in Language Assessment Quarterly 12, 4, pp. 430-431
  • Elder, C. Pill, J. Frost, K. and Bow, C. (2015) "Marching out of step: the uneasy links between task-based language competencies for military purposes and a general proficiency scale," in DeSilva Joyce, H. and Thomson, E. (eds.,). Language in uniform: Language and analysis and training for defence and policing purposes. Cambridge Scholars Publishing, pp. 223-240
  • Elder, C. and Read, J. (2015a). "Post-entry language assessments in Australia," in Read, J. Assessing English Proficiency for University Study. Palgrave MacMillan
  • Elder, C. and Read, J. (2015b) "Post-entry language assessments in other countries," in Read, J. Assessing English Proficiency for University Study. Palgrave MacMillan
  • Kim, H. and Elder, C. (2015). "Interrogating the construct of aviation English: feedback from test takers in Korea," in Language Testing 32, 2, pp. 129-149
  • Knoch, U. and McNamara, T. (2015). "Rasch analysis," in L. Plonsky (ed.,). Advancing quantitative methods in second language research. Taylor and Francis/Routledge
  • Knoch, U., McNamara, T., Woodward-Kron, R., Elder, C., Manias, E., Flynn, E. and Zhang, Y. (2015). "Towards improved language assessment of written health professional communication: the case of the Occupational English Test," in Papers in Language Testing and Assessment 4, 2, pp. 60-66
  • Knoch, U., Roushad, A., Oon, S.P., Storch, N. (2015). What happens to ESL students’ writing after three years of study at an English medium university? Journal of Second Language Writing 28, pp. 39-52
  • Macqueen, S., Woodward-Kron, R., Flynn, E., Reid, K., Elliott, K., Slade, D. (2015). A resource for teaching emergency care communication. The Clinical Teacher
  • O'Hagan, S., J. Pill and Y. Zhang (2015). Extending the scope of speaking assessment criteria in a specific-purpose language test: Operationalizing a health professional perspective. Language Testing 33 (2), pp. 195-216.
  • O'Hagan, S. and Wigglesworth, G. (2015). "Who's marking my essay? The assessment of non native-speaker and native-speaker undergraduate essays in an Australian higher education context," in Studies in Higher Education 40 (9), pp. 1729-1747


  • Knoch, U., Rouhshad, A. and Storch, N. (2014). "Does the writing of undergraduate ESL students develop after one year of study in an English-medium university?" in Assessing Writing 21, pp. 1-17
  • Knoch, U. (2014). "Using subject specialists to validate an ESP rating scale: The case of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) rating scale," in English for Specific Purposes 33 (1), pp. 77-86
  • O'Hagan, S. (2014). Variability in assessor responses to undergraduate essays: an issue for assessment quality in higher education. Peter Lang, 2014
  • O'Hagan, S., Manias, E., Elder, C., Pill, J., Woodward-Kron, R., McNamara, T., Webb, G. and McColl, G. (2014). "What counts as effective communication in nursing? Evidence from nurse educators' and clinicians' feedback on nurse interactions with simulated patients," in Journal of Advanced Nursing 70 (6), pp. 1344-1354


  • Elder, C. and Kim, S.H.O. "Assessing teachers' language proficiency," in Kunnan, A. J. (ed.). The companion to language assessment. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2013, pp. 454-470
  • Elder, C., McNamara, T., Woodward-Kron, R., Manias, E., McColl, G., Webb, G., Pill, J. and O'Hagan, S. "Developing and validating language proficiency standards for non-native English speaking health professionals," in Papers in Language Testing and Assessment 2 (1), 2013, pp. 66-70
  • Knoch, U. and Elder, C. "A framework for validating post-entry language assessments (PELAs)," in Papers in Language Testing and Assessment 2 (2), 2013, pp. 44-68
  • Macqueen, S. "Emergence in second language writing: A methodological inroad," in Revista Brasileira de Linguística Aplicada 13 (2), 2013, pp. 493-515
  • Pill, J. and Harding, L. "Defining the language assessment literacy gap: Evidence from a parliamentary inquiry," in Language Testing 30 (3), 2013, pp. 381-402
  • Woodward-Kron, R., Flynn, E., Macqueen, S., Enright, H. and McColl, G. "The state of emergency communication skills teaching in Australian medical schools: Gaps, barriers, and opportunities," in Focus on Health Professional Education 14 (3), 2013, pp. 49-63