Research Unit for Indigenous Language staff
- Professor Rachel Nordlinger FAHA, Professor of Linguistics, Chief Investigator in the ARC Centre of Excellence for the Dynamics of Language
- Associate Professor Nicholas Thieberger, Chief Investigator, ARC Centre of Excellence for the Dynamics of Language
- Professor Janet Fletcher FAHA, Professor of Phonetics, Chief Investigator in the ARC Centre of Excellence for the Dynamics of Language
- Professor Gillian Wigglesworth, Professor of Linguistics, Chief Investigator in the ARC Centre of Excellence for the Dynamics of Language
Research Unit for Indigenous Language students
Brigitte Agnew is writing a grammatical description of Mangarla, a Pama-Nyungan language of the Marrngu family, originally spoken in the Great Sandy Desert in north Western Australia.
As an unusual blend of technologist and linguist, Mat Bettison's academic focus is two fold: social web approaches to language endangerment initiatives and broader linguistic issues relating to the rise of social media in China. In 2014 he became a Doctor of Philosophy (Arts) student at the University of Melbourne. Mat's research is aimed at scalable methods in documenting endangered languages, or to put it another way, using mobile technology to crowdsource language from speaker communities at risk of language loss. In such a way Mat hopes to play a part in ensuring that future generations have access to the rich cultural knowledge of the dwindling number of languages in the world.
Katie Bicevskis completed a BA (Visual) at ANU in 2001 a Graduate (2010) and Postgraduate (2012) Diploma in Linguistics at the University of Melbourne. Her Postgraduate Diploma thesis examined incorporation of modifiers in the Gunwinyguan languages of the Northern Territory. She also completed an MA in Linguistics at the University of British Columbia in 2015 and for her MA thesis she conducted experimental research into the integration of visual and tactile speech information in speech perception. During her time in Canada she also worked on Gitksan, an endangered language of the Tsimshianic family traditionally spoken in northwestern British Columbia. Katie has recently begun her Doctor of Philosophy (Arts) at the University of Melbourne and is working on a grammar of Marri Ngarr, an endangered Australian language of the Daly River region in the Northern Territory.
Lucy Davidson majored in foreign languages in her Bachelor of Arts at the University of Melbourne, coming to linguistics after completing graduate coursework at Melbourne and then an MPhil at the University of Cambridge. In 2013 she joined the ARC funded project, LAMP (Language Acquisition in Murrinhpatha), as a Doctor of Philosophy (Arts) candidate. This has involved extended fieldwork in Wadeye, a remote Aboriginal community in Northern Territory, to collect linguistic data both for her own research and for the broader project’s corpus. Lucy’s PhD research tracks the linguistic development of seven young children who are acquiring Murrinhpatha, the polysynthetic Australian language spoken in this area. Wadeye is a highly unique context; geographically, linguistically and socioculturally. Lucy’s research focuses on how the children use language to express the ways in which they themselves belong in this society, how others fit within it, and how this changes over the course of 22 months.
Daniela Diedrich completed a Bachelor with Honours at La Trobe University in 2013. Her Honours dealt with the phonology of Tombulu, an endangered Minahasan language of Sulawesi. Her interest in Austronesian languages and documentary linguistics then led her to start a Doctor of Philosophy (Arts) at the University of Melbourne. Daniela's PhD research focuses on the grammatical structures of Paku, an endangered South East Barito language spoken in Borneo where she is working with speakers to complete a grammatical description and a dictionary. She is also collecting recordings of stories in order to preserve not only the language, but also as much of the cultural heritage as possible, for future generations.
Kate is a Doctor of Philosophy (Arts) student at the University of Melbourne who is documenting and describing Wubuy (also referred to as 'Nunggubuyu'), an endangered Australian language spoken around Numbulwar in south-east Arnhem Land, NT. She has been working on this language since her Honours degree at the University of New England Armidale, where she considered interactions between possession, noun incorporation and verb agreement in Wubuy and proposed a new empirically-based classification of the possessive constructions that more clearly accounted for their distribution.
Her research is currently focused on the interfaces between syntax, morphology and semantics in Wubuy, particularly in relation to the expression of verbal arguments and the ways in which this can be affected by verb derivational processes. She is also teaching undergraduate courses within the department and is involved in the ARC funded project 'Doing great things with small languages', where she is enriching earlier recordings of Wubuy mythological and ethnographic texts collected in the 1970s. This same research project has also funded four months of her PhD fieldwork.
Katie Jepson is a Doctor of Philosophy (Arts) candidate in the Phonetics Laboratory at The University of Melbourne. Katie completed a Bachelor of Arts with Honours at the ANU in 2013. In her Honours research, she worked on segmental and intonational phonology and its’ relationship to focus and topic in Torau, an Oceanic language spoken on the east coast of central Bougainville, Papua New Guinea. Her doctoral research is an acoustic phonetic study of prosodic phenomena in Djambarrpuyŋu, a Yolŋu Matha variety spoken in north east Arnhem Land. Using experimental phonetic and laboratory phonology methods, Katie is examining prosodic prominence at the level of the word - ie stress - and the phrase - ie intonation - and how these acoustic prominences contribute to meaning, such as by encoding information structure. There is also a perception component to investigate how Djambarrpuyŋu people perceive and use these illusive prosodic phenomena in processing speech. The study will be both qualitative and quantitative, to account for what is observed. A particular area of interest is the rising intonation contour which has been anecdotally reported for Djambarrpuyŋu, and is uncommon among the Yolŋu languages, and Australian languages more widely.
Ivan has worked with a couple languages so far, mostly Adyghe (Northwest Caucasian), but also Imbabura Quichua (Quechuan) and Kalmyck (Turkic). Adyghe is a language with fascinatingly complex morphosyntax characteristic of the polysynthetic type. Ivan's Doctor of Philosophy (Arts) will be on a grammatical description of Kunbarlang (Gunwinyguan), a polysynthetic language indigenous to Australia's Northern Territory. With less than 20 speakers remaining, it is on the brink of extinction, and there's little time left to capture and document it.
Maria Karidakis completed her undergraduate degree in 2015 at the University of Melbourne graduating with Honours in Linguistics. In her Honours research she worked on language and metaphor in end-of-life discussions. She is currently doing a Doctor of Philosophy (Arts) that investigates the challenges Aboriginal Liaison Officers and interpreters of Australian Indigenous languages face when English medical terminology and concepts have no or minimal equivalent in Indigenous languages or vice versa. Another aim of this study is to examine what interpreters and Aboriginal Liaison Officers perceive as the major language-related challenges and opportunities in interpreter-mediated interactions, and what strategies they employ to ensure the communication works. This research project highlights the need to raise awareness of the importance of culturally-sensitive interpreting between medical clinicians and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients. Maria is also employed as a research assistant assisting with the Yipirinya School data transcription.
Ana Krajinović is a joint Doctor of Philosophy (Arts) student at the University of Melbourne and Humboldt University in Berlin. Her PhD research focuses on TMA expressions in Nafsan, also known as South Efate, spoken on the island of Efate in Vanuatu. The study of TMA in Nafsan gives special attention to mood and aspect, the most prominent categories of its TMA system. Starting from a more detailed description of grammatical encoding of TMA in Nafsan, the main goal of Ana’s PhD project is to show what a mood-prominent language like Nafsan can clarify when put in typological and theoretical debates. She also intends to rely on different theoretical approaches for a deeper semantic and pragmatic analysis of TMA in Nafsan. The main sources of language data are the Nafsan corpus collected by Nick Thieberger and Ana's fieldwork data.
Gemma Morales is working on a Doctor of Philosophy (Arts) research project investigating the development of Yolngu Matha (home language) literacy skills in Indigenous children from remote Indigenous communities in the Northern Territory, Australia. The project involves the creation of iPad apps designed to assess and train phonological awareness and letter knowledge in Yolngu Matha. Gemma is investigating whether these resources will facilitate the acquisition of early literacy for these communities, which come from oral traditions. Gemma is also working as a research assistant on the Aboriginal Child Language Acquisition Project (ACLA2), which is being conducted by researchers from the University of Melbourne and the Australian National University. ACLA2 documents the languages that Indigenous children use and hear at home and in school.
Peter is conducting Doctor of Philosophy (Arts) research on the phonology of Wubuy, an endangered polysynthetic language of Southeast Arnhem Land, primarily spoken in the remote community of Numbulwar. The language is known for having complex interactions between phonology and morphology, and it is hoped that his research will lead to a clearer understanding of these. Peter also completed his undergraduate and honours studies at the University of Melbourne. His Honours research concerned the morphological integration of English loanwords into Arabic, and he retains an interest in how grammars react to contact with other languages, and in what this can reveal about language in general.
Carly Steele has started her Doctor of Philosophy (Arts) in 2016 at the University of Melbourne under the supervision of Professor Gillian Wigglesworth. She will be working with Indigenous Kriol speaking children in educational settings. Prior to this, Carly has been employed as a teacher, both Primary and Secondary, in NSW, WA, and QLD and later as a literacy consultant in Cairns. She has worked in Indigenous education in remote WA, Cairns and the Torres Strait. During this time, Carly completed a Master of Arts (Applied Linguistics) at Curtin University. Her Master's thesis investigated whether Indigenous students' literacy levels impact upon the way they process language and, as a consequence, their oral Second Dialect Acquisition (SDA).
Catalina Torres Orjuela
Catalina is a Doctor of Philosophy (Arts) candidate working in the Phonetics Laboratory at the University of Melbourne. Her PhD research focuses on language contact in New Caledonia and the prosodic systems of Drehu, an Oceanic language, and New Caledonian French. A substantial part of her research consists of a detailed description of the acoustic correlates of prosody in both languages. Catalina is interested in bilingualism as a language contact phenomenon and wants to investigate what are the social and psycholinguistic factors influencing bilingual prosody. With her research, she wants to investigate if there exist bi-directional effects related to bilingual prosody acquisition. As part of her project she will visit the University of New Caledonia and conduct fieldwork in Lifou (in the Loyalty Islands).
Catalina holds a BA in French language and literature and a MA in linguistics, both completed at Freie Universität Berlin, Germany. In her Master’s thesis, she studied the intonation contours of bilingual Portuguese and German speaking children from a two-way immersion school in Berlin.
Sasha's Doctor of Philosophy (Arts) project is a study of intergenerational variation and change in Pitjantjatjara, a Western Desert language spoken in Central Australia. Sasha completed a Bachelor of Arts with Honours at the University of Melbourne in 2014. Her Honours research focused on the distribution of some under-described discourse-marking clitics in Murrinhpatha. Since completing her Honours degree, she has been working in the language technology industry at the Sydney-based company Appen, using computational methods to develop various types of language data for machine learning. She has also been working as a research assistant with Felicity Meakins at the University of Queensland, developing a longitudinal corpus of Gurindji Kriol
Professor Linda Barwick
Linda Barwick (Associate Dean (Research) at Sydney Conservatorium of Music, University of Sydney), is a musicologist specialising in the study of Australian Indigenous and immigrant musics and in the digital humanities (particularly archiving and repatriation of ethnographic field recordings as a site of interaction between researchers and cultural heritage communities). She has studied community music practices through fieldwork in Australia, Italy and the Philippines. Collaborations with Australian linguists have been particularly important for Linda's work on documenting songs in a number of Australian communities. She has collaborated with several RUIL members over the years, including Nick Thieberger (especially through involvement in PARADISEC), Rachel Nordlinger and Jenny Green (with whom she collaborates on a current ARC Linkage Project with the Central Land Council), Joe Blythe and John Mansfield (Murrinh-patha song) and Ruth Singer (Mawng song). Linda is also an associate investigator with the ARC Centre of Excellence for the Dynamics of Language.
Associate Professor Steven Bird
Steven Bird is Associate Professor in Computing and Information Systems at the University of Melbourne, and Senior Research Associate at the Linguistic Data Consortium. His research focusses on formal and computational models for linguistic information, with application to human language technologies and to the description of the world's 7,000 languages. He lead The University of Melbourne team which developed Aikuma, an android app for preserving the last words of the world’s endangered languages, which won the Grand Prize in the Open Source Software World Challenge 2013. Before coming to the University of Melbourne he did doctoral and post-doctoral research at the University of Edinburgh (1987-94). From 1995-97 he conducted linguistic fieldwork on the languages of western Cameroon, published a dictionary, and helped develop several new writing systems. From 1998-2002 he was Associate Director of the Linguistic Data Consortium at the University of Pennsylvania, where he led an R&D team working on open-source software for linguistic annotation.
Emeritus Professor Barry Blake
Barry Blake is Emeritus Professor of Linguistics at la Trobe University. He is author or joint author of descriptions of three languages of western Queensland based on fieldwork undertaken in the period 1966-1976 and of several descriptions of Victorian languages based on nineteenth century sources. His most recent work has been to produce a consolidated account of Yartwatjali, Tjapwurrung and Djadjawurrung, three closely related dialects of Western Kulin. He is currently an adviser to the Boandik community in the production of a resource volume on Bunganditj.
Recent publications include:
- Blake, B.J. 2010. Secret Language. Oxford: OUP
- Blake, B.J. 2007. Playing with Words: Humour in the English Language. London: Equinox
- Blake, B.J. 2007. All about Language. Oxford: OUP
- Breen, J. G. and Blake, B. J. 2006. A Grammar of Yalarnnga. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics
Dr Joe Blythe
Joe is Lecturer of Linguistics and Research Fellow (DECRA) at Macquarie University. Joe has conducted field research on the Kija and Jaru languages of northern Western Australia and continues fieldwork with speakers of the Murrinh-Patha language of Australia's Northern Territory.
As an interactional linguist, Joe is interested in the relationships between linguistic structure and social action, and what these relationships reveal about social cognition and culture. He is concerned with how interlocutors coordinate with each other in making themselves understood, and in how they package their talk, gaze and gestures, etc., as moves directed towards interactional goals. He is especially interested in what social interaction reveals about why words and constructions are structured the way they are. Thus, do particular structures reveal affordances for delivering particular actions? Are these structures better adapted than alternative structures for delivering the desired actions? Can constraints on language use be observed to be driving structural and semantic change?
Cathy Bow is the project manager for the Living Archive of Aboriginal Languages at Charles Darwin University, which is collecting and digitising Indigenous language materials from the Northern Territory and making them available via an open access website, Living Archive of Aboriginal Languages. Previously she was involved with training Indigenous linguists for a language revival project in Bourke, NSW, and also with analysis and preparation of data collected at Wangka Maya Pilbara Aboriginal Language Centre for dictionary publication. Outside of her work in Indigenous languages, Cathy has described the sound system of an African language, investigated language development in children with impaired hearing, explored endangered language documentation, and researched the language and communication needs of international medical graduates. She has worked as a teacher of English as an Additional Languages, a trainer and coach for language learners, and is the NT representative for OzCLO.
Dr Reuben Brown
Reuben Brown (PhD Ethnomusicology, University of Sydney) is an ARC Research Associate at the Faculty of VCA and MCM based at the Wilin Centre for Indigenous Arts and Cultural Development, and Research Affiliate with the ARC Centre of Excellence for the Dynamics of Language. Reuben has collaborated with Indigenous Australian ceremony leaders and artists as well as linguists, historians and musicologists to document the public performance traditions of kun-borrk/manyardi of western Arnhem Land and thabi of the Pilbara region, and to return legacy recordings in order to support community efforts to maintain and revitalise ceremonial practices, aspects of language and embodied knowledge passed down through performance.
Reuben’s research interests include investigating public ceremony of western Arnhem Land and the Pilbara as a site of intercultural exchange, and the role of digital environments in facilitating intergenerational transmission language, song, and dance. Current research collaborations with RUIL members include: investigating multilingualism and musical diversity in western Arnhem Land through various research initiatives led by Ruth Singer, Nicholas Evans, Isabel O’Keeffe, and Linda Barwick in collaboration with Inyjalarrku (mermaid songset) ceremony leaders David and Jenny Manmurulu, and creating a community database of legacy and contemporary recordings of solo and group performed song traditions of the Pilbara, in collaboration with elders, composers, and ARC Discovery Project CI’s Sally Treloyn and Nick Thieberger.
Margaret Carew has worked in the Northern Territory as a community linguist for 20 years, after studies in linguistics at the University of Melbourne (Bachelor of Arts - Honours) and Education and Applied Linguistics at Monash University (Diploma of Education; Masters of Applied Linguistics). She has undertaken long-term language research with the Gun-nartpa language group in north-central Arnhem Land since the 1990s, and continues to work with a Gun-nartpa language team on language documentation and publishing projects. She has also worked on projects with language teams at Ti Tree, Utopia, Wilora, Artarre, Willowra, Yuendumu, Yuelamu and at Tennant Creek.
Margaret has extensive experience in adult education with Indigenous adults, having taught in both Higher Education and VET programs in the area of linguistics and Indigenous language documentation. She has also worked collaboratively with linguistic colleagues and other organisations on a range of projects, including cross-platform creative projects which combine print, media and online components. She maintains websites for various language projects as part of her current role as project linguist at Batchelor Institute for Indigenous Tertiary Education.
Dr Alice Gaby
Alice Gaby is Senior Lecturer in the School of Languages, Literatures, Cultures and Linguistics at Monash University. Since 2002, she has collaborated with speakers of various Paman languages in the Cape York community of Pormpuraaw. She has published on a range of topics in grammatical description, typology, semantics, pragmatics, and the relationship between language, culture and cognition (many of which are available for download). Ongoing research interests include how the classificatory kinship systems is implicated in the grammatical expression of politeness in Pormpuraaw and elsewhere. Another current research project explores how people around the world draw on metaphor--of strikingly different kinds--to understand ineffable concepts such as time, as well as the cognitive impact of these metaphors. A third thread of research seeks to disentangle the respective contributions of language, culture, local geography, and communicative context in shaping how spatial relationships are conceptualized and described.
Dr Robert Mailhammer
Robert Mailhammer is a Senior Lecturer affiliated with the School of Humanities and Communication Arts and The MARCS Institute at the University of Western Sydney. Since 2007 Robert has been involved in the documentation and linguistic analysis of Iwaidjan languages, traditionally spoken in Northwestern Arnhem Land. His interest focuses especially on Amurdak, which is critically endangered, and Iwaidja as well as Aboriginal English. Robert has conducted fieldwork on Croker Island and Goulburn Island, working on Amurdak, Iwaidja, Mawng and Aboriginal English. He has published on Amurdak and Iwaidjan languages and is the co-author of Amurdak Inyman (2009), the first published collection of Amurdak texts with translations into Iwaidja and English as well as grammatical notes. Robert's work on Australian Indigenous languages has been funded by a number of organisations, such as the Australian Research Council, the Alexander-von-Humboldt Foundation, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, the Volkswagenstiftung and the Endangered Languages Project.
Associate Professor Angela Morgan
Angela is Head of the Neuroscience of Speech group at the Murdoch Children's Research Institute and Director of Research and Teaching for Speech Pathology at the University of Melbourne. Angela's research focuses on the neurobiology of child speech and language disorders. Her vision is to bring neuroscientific evidence to everyday practice in Speech Pathology to optimise outcomes for children affected by speech and language disorders. She is focused on speech and language development in indigenous children as part of her wider program.
Dr Stephen Morey
Dr Stephen Morey is a senior Lecturer in the Department of Languages and Linguistics, La Trobe University. His principal research since 1996 has been languages of the Tai-Kadai and Tibeto-Burman families of Northeast India (and more recently neighbouring Myanmar), but he have also worked extensively on the Indigenous Languages of Victoria, in conjunction with Barry Blake (La Trobe), Heather Bowe (Monash) and Luise Hercus (ANU). This work has mostly involved the transcription and analysis of 19th century sources for the languages of Victoria, comparing them with the recordings from the fluent native speakers made by Luise Hercus in the 1960s. Publications have included grammars of Yorta Yorta (Bowe and Morey 1999), and Wati-Wati and Letyi-Letyi languages (in Blake, Hercus, Morey with Ryan 2011). Other publications have been on the Woiwurrung language (Morey 1999), Place names of Western Victoria (Morey 2005), negation in languages of Southeast Australia (Hercus and Morey 2008) and Gippsland (Morey in print). Together with Luise Hercus, Ted Ryan and Grace Koch, Stephen is currently preparing a monograph on the traditional Indigenous songs of Victoria, from linguistic, musicological, historical and ethnographic perspectives. He is also president of the Resource Network for Linguistic Diversity Inc.
Dr Isabel O'Keeffe
Isabel O'Keeffe (née Bickerdike) has a Bachelor of Music and Bachelor of Arts (with honours in linguistics) and in 2016 completed her Doctor of Philosophy (Arts) in Linguistics at the University of Melbourne with a thesis titled Multilingual manyardi/kun-borrk: Manifestations of Multilingualism in the classical song traditions of western Arnhem Land. The thesis examines the public dance-songs of Indigenous communities in western Arnhem Land and how they reflect and contribute to the region's linguistic diversity and multilingual practices.
She is currently a Research Associate at the Sydney Conservatorium of Music collaborating with Dr Ruth Singer and Professor Linda Barwick on a Major Documentation Project funded by the Endangered Languages Documentation Programme (ELDP): Empowering Indigenous youth to create a comprehensive pan-varietal, ethnobiological, anthropological record of Kun-barlang through training in low-cost language documentation technology (2016-2019). This project will produce a comprehensive documentation of the remaining varieties of Kun-barlang, a highly endangered language spoken in northwestern Arnhem Land, which has fewer than 60 speakers. Particular emphasis will be on documenting the full range of varieties and registers, including the undocumented 'widow's language'; and language in the domains of kinship, ethnobiology, music and public ceremony. Younger people in the Warruwi and Maningrida communities will be trained and supported in the use of low-cost language documentation technology and will be an integral part of the documentation team.
Isabel is also working with descendants of Wayilwan Ngiyambaa speakers to create language revival materials based on her honours thesis sketch grammar of Wayilwan Ngiyambaa, a 'sleeping' Indigenous language from northern NSW.
Dr Sally Treloyn
Dr Sally Treloyn joined the Melbourne Conservatorium of Music in 2010 as a recipient of an inaugural John McKenzie Postdoctoral Research Fellowship, having received her PhD in ethnomusicology from the University of Sydney in 2007. Her research focuses on recording and documenting of song and dance traditions in the Kimberley region of northwest Australia, and on developing strategies to support Indigenous stakeholders and organizations in their efforts to sustain their highly endangered musical practices and the knowledge systems to which they are attached. Sally is also an Honorary Research Fellow at the University of Sydney, PARADISEC, and is Coordinator of the National Recording Project for Indigenous Performance in Australia. A list of Sally's current projects is available on her Music, Mind & Wellbeing web page.
RUIL's associate students are studying an Indigenous language beyond the Asia-Pacific region.
Jonathan is studying the Lopit language, spoken by around 50,000 people living in the Lopit Mountains north-east of Torit in Eastern Equatoria province in South Sudan. Lopit is an Eastern Nilotic language belonging to the Nilo-Saharan family. He is working with the Lopit communities in Melbourne and in the Kakuma refugee camp in Northern Kenya. He is writing a grammar of the language and working with Rosey Billington.
Research Unit for Indigenous Language graduates
Brighde completed her MA with RUIL in 2015, with a thesis entitled 'Ngandi aspectual expression: past and present'. This thesis was based on a language, Ngandi, from Arnhem Land, Northern Territory (Australia). Brighde is the former Project Officer for RUIL and is now working in a remote Queensland community teaching Aboriginal languages. Her interests include the documentation and revitalisation of Australian Indigenous languages, specifically with respect to involving and empowering community members in the process of working on their own languages.
Bill completed his Doctor of Philosophy (Arts) with RUIL in 2016. His thesis Little kids, big verbs: The acquisition of Murrinhpatha bipartite stem verbs provided an account of children's acquisition of bipartite verb structures in Murrinhpatha, an Australian language of the Northern Territory. This research included assisting in the collection of a longitudinal corpus of Murrinhpatha children's speech as part of the Language acquisition of Murrinhpatha (LAMP) project. Since completing his study Bill has been employed as a linguist at OLSH Thamarrurr Catholic College in Wadeye, a bilingual school with bi-literacy instruction in Murrinhpatha and English.
His research interests include morphology and syntax, lexicography and dictionaries, digital humanities, as well as the use of technology in field linguistics. Aidan works as an archivist with the Pacific and Regional Archive of Digital Sources in Endangered Cultures (PARADISEC), where he has been a member of the team since 2005.
He recently completed his MA in RUIL with the thesis title Tiwi Revisited: A reanalysis of Traditional Tiwi verb morphology.
- Wilson, A. 2010. "Electronic dictionaries for language reclamation", in Hobson et al. (eds.,). Re-awakening languages: theory and practice in the revitalisation of Australia's Indigenous languages. Sydney: University of Sydney Press
- Wilson, A. 2006. Negative Evidence in Linguistics: The case of Wagiman complex predicates. University of Sydney, Sydney